Copak; tphptilAk;gb jpwe;j fjT

rNfh. yhwpapd; Mq;fpy nra;jpia jkpopy; nkhop ngaHj;jtH rNfh. rthpuhad;-1961

vy;yh jug;gpypUe;Jk; MjuT

Muk;g fhyj;jpy;> Mokhd rj;jpaq;fis Ntjj;jpypUe;J mwpe;J> Ghpe;J nfhs;tjw;F Kd!> rNfh. yhwp ,ul;rpg;gpd!> nja;tPf Rfk; Fwpj;j nra;jpfisg; gpurq;fpj;Jf; nfhz!bUe;jhh;. Mq;fpypf;fd!> v];.gp.[p.> vy;.vk;.v];.> nkjb];l;> ghg;b];l;> nge;Njnfh];Nj cl;gl vy;yh rigfshYk; tuNtw;fg;gl;lhh;. mNef Nguhah;fs;> kp\dhpfs;> kw;Wk; rigj;jiyth;fs; mtUf;F Mjuthf ,Ue;jdh;.

“ehfh;NfhtpypYk;> Rw;Wtl;lhuj;jpYk; ePq;fs; ey;y Ntiy nra;fpwij ftdpj;J ehd! kfpo;r;rp milfpNwd!. cq;fs; Copaj;ij Njtd! MrPh;tjpg;ghh;. njd! ,e;jpa jpUr;rigAld! ,ize;J ePq;fs; Ntiy nra;tijAk; ehd! fz!L kfpo;r;rp milfpNwd!”.

,Jjhd! 1958-k; Mz!L> mg;Nghija jpUney;Ntyp Nguhah; A.G. n[guh[; mth;fs; rNfh. yhwpf;F nfhLj;j ew;rhd!whFk;.

ve;j rigapYk;> Foe;ij Qhd];ehdk;> njspg;G Qhd];ehdk;> kw;Wk; jplg;gLj;jy; Nghd!w Ntjj;jpw;Fg; Gwk;ghd rlq;Ffspy; <Lglhjgbf;F rNfh. yhwp vr;rhpf;ifahf ,Ue;jhh;. $l;lq;fspy; NjtDila ty;yik nka;ahfNt ntspg;gl;lJ vd!wjhy; ahUk; mtw;wpy; mjpf mf;fiu fhz!gpf;ftpy;iy. fh;j;juhfpa ,NaR> G+kpapy; ele;j ehl;fspy; Copaq;fs; ele;j tpjkhf mij khjphpahff; nfhz!L Copaq;fs; nra;ag;gl;ld. mtUila ehl;fspd! ];jhgdq;fshfpa n[g Myaq;fspy; mth; gpurq;fpj;jhh;. kw;w rkaq;fspy; ,lk; tpl;L ,lk; nrd!W jpwe;j ntspapYk;> flw;fiufspYk; gpurq;fpj;jhh;.

Vohk; rigapd! J}jdhfpa rNfh. gpuhd!`hKk; jhd! miof;fg;gl;bUe;j ];jhgd rigfspy; gpurq;fpj;jhh;. mtUila nrhe;j rigapYk;> kw;Wk; mth; nrhe;jkhf muq;Ffspy; elj;jpa $l;lq;fspy; kl;LNk ];jhgd khh;f;fj;jpw;F vjpuhfTk;> mtUila CopakhdJ tsh;e;J tUk;NghJ Mokhd rj;jpaq;fisAk;; gpurq;fpj;jhh;. rNfh. yhwp Copaj;jpYk; mNj khjphpia Njtd! filg;gpbj;jJk; ,ay;GjhNd. mth; jd! Copaj;ij ];jhgd rigfspy; Muk;gpj;jhYk;> mth; gue;j njspthd Nehf;fk; nfhz!l Copaj;jpw;fhf vLf;fg;gl;L> Ntjj;jpd! rj;jpaq;fis ntspNa ,Ue;J gpurq;fpj;jhh;. mNef fpwp];jt rQ;rpiffs; 1960fspd! Muk;g fhyq;fspy; rNfh. yhwpapd! mw;Gj Copaq;fisg;gw;wp ghuhl;b vOjpapUe;jd. gae;j rigahh;> rNfh. yhwp jdpegh; topghL cz!lhf;FtjhfTk;> Gjpa rig fl;LtjhfTk; gug;gpa ngha;ahd tje;jpfis Jilj;njwpa mit gad!gl;ld. kaf;f epiyapy; ,Ue;j jkpoh;fis tpopj;njor; nra;a> jkpodhfpa rNfh. ghyhrPh; yhwpia Njtd! jk; kfj;jhd ,uf;fj;jpdhy; vOg;gpdhh; vd!W mNefh; epidj;jdh;. rNfh. yhwp jd!dlf;fk; cs;s ,isQuhf ,Ue;J NjtDila rj;jj;ijAk;> nra;jpiaAk; cilatuhff; fhzg;gl;lhh;.

nrd!idg; Nguhah;> jdJ mjpfhuj;jpw;F cl;gl;l vy;yh rigfisAk; jpwe;J nfhLj;jpUe;jhYk;> lhf;lh; gpy;yp fpu`hKf;F nfhLf;fg;gl;l gue;j tpsk;guk; rNfh. yhwpf;F nfhLf;fg;gltpy;iy. ,e;jpa rhpj;jpuj;jpy; lhf;lh; fpufhKf;Fj;jhd! mJtiu mjpff; $l;lk; $bapUe;jJ. mjpy; fpwp];jth; my;yhjhh; nfhQ;rk; J}tg;gl;lJ Nghy; ,Ue;jdh;. rNfh. yhwp rigaplkpUe;J mjpf tpsk;guk; ngwhtpl;lhYk; yl;rf; fzf;fhNdhh; $l;lq;fspy; gq;F ngw;wdh;. xt;nthU ehSk; $l;lk; mjpfk; MfpaJ. mth;fspy;; 75 rjtPjk; fpwp];jth; my;yhjhh;. jpwe;j ntspapy; elj;jg;gl;l $l;lq;fs; fpwp];jt rNfhjuh;fisAk; <h;j;jjhy; mth;fspy; gyh; fpwp];Jit nrhe;j ,ul;rfuhf Vw;Wf; nfhz!ljhf mwpf;ifapl;ldh;.

vjph;g;Gk; #o;r;rpAk;

nja;tPf Rfkspg;gpd! Copaj;jpd! kfj;jhd ntw;wpahy;> rNfh. yhwp> fpwp];jth;fs; kj;jpapYk;> Gwkj];jhh; kj;jpapYk; Gfo; ngw;wpUe;jhh;. vy;yh vjph;g;Gfs; kj;jpapYk; nghJkf;fs; mtUf;F MjuthapUe;jdh;. ,J> fh;j;jh; jhNk vy;yhw;wpw;Fk; Nkyhf MSk; tphpthd Copaq;fSf;F Nghfr; nra;jJ. gpd!dh;> rNfh. yhwp njd!dpe;jpa jpUr;rigapypUe;J Gwk;ghf;fg;gl;lhh;. ,e;jj; jPh;khdj;jpw;F epahakhd fhuzk; vJTk; ,y;iy. ,dp mtUila Copaj;ijr; nra;a jilAk; ,y;yhjjhy; mth; ,ij Mf;f G+h;tkhfNt vLj;Jf; nfhz!lhh;. ,jd! gpd!dh;> Xh; cz!ikahd rNfhjud! muf;Nfhzk; vd!w jd!Dila ,lj;jpy; $l;lq;fs; itf;FkhW tpUk;gpdhh;.

muf;Nfhzj;jpy; $l;lk; elj;j rigapypUe;J miog;G tuhJ vd!W rNfh. yhwp mwpe;jpUe;jhh;. MfNt rNfh. yhwp> K];ypk; xUtUf;Fr; nrhe;jkhd jpwe;j ntsp ikjhdj;ij Vw;ghL nra;jhh;. mq;F 50>000 NgUf;F Nky; $l;lq;fspy; gq;nfLj;jdh;. fh;j;jUila ty;yikahd fphpiafs; mq;F nra;ag;gl;ld. rigapd! jPh;khdKk; Nghjfh;fSk; ghpjhg epiyapy; ,Ue;jdh;. rNfh. yhwp Nguhaiug; ghh;f;f Ntz!Lk; vd!W Nghjfh; tpUk;gpdhh;. jPh;khdk; jpUk;gg; ngwg;glhky; Nguhaiug; ghh;g;gjpy; cgNahfkpy;iy vd!W rNfh. yhwp fUjpdhh;> Vndd!why; $l;lq;fs; Kf;fpakhf Gwkj];jUf;fhf elj;jg;gl;ld.

Mdhy; rNfh. yhwpapd! GfOf;F mstpy;yhjpUe;jJ. nge;njnfh];Nj tpRthrk; cs;stuhf fUjg;gl;l mth;> mth;fNshL neUq;fp tuhjJ nge;njnfh];Nj FOf;fSf;F vhpr;rY}l;baJ. ,e;jj; jdpj;jd!ik cs;sth;> gPl miog;G> jPh;khd ml;il Nghd!w fhhpaq;fis gad!gLj;jtpy;iy vd!W rpy gphptpdh; (tpNr\khf gpujud! vd!W miof;fg;gLgth;fs;) Fiw $wpdh;. cs;shd thQ;irAld!> (rigapd! mDkjpNah> mgpN\fNkh ,y;yhj) xU rig mq;fj;jpdd! rigapd! vy;iyf;F mg;ghy; nrd!W rig ftiy nfhs;Sk; mstpw;F GfoilAk;NghJ> Nguikg;G ngw;w fpwp];jtk; (Gnuhl;l];lhd!Lk; fj;Njhypf;f rigAk;) kdf;fyf;fk; milfpwJ.

,izapy;yhj Efk; Kwpe;jJ

me;j ehl;fspy; rpNyhd! nge;njnfh];Nj rig ,uz!lhf cile;jJ. ntspNa js;sg;gl;L jg;gp te;j FO> gh];lh; My;tpd! jiyikapy; te;jJ. mtUf;F rNfh. yhwp milf;fyk; nfhLj;j NghJ me;jf; FOtpdh; ek;NkhL If;fpak; nfhs;s tpUk;gpdh;. me;jf; FOtpy; mNefh; fh;j;juhfpa ,NaR fpwp];Jtpd! ehkj;jpd! Qhd];ehdj;ij Vw;Wf; nfhz!L kWgbAk; Qhd];ehdk; ngw;whh;fs;. mth;fspy; rNfh. yhwpAld! Copaj;jpy; ,Ue;j rhuhs; etNuh[p vDk; rNfhjhpAk; cz!L;. mh;j;jKs;s fpwp];jt gf;jpg; ghly;fis ,aw;wp ghl mth; jpwik tha;e;jth;. xU ey;y ghlfpahfTk; jpfo;e;jhh;fs;. mth; Vwf;Fiwa 300 ey;y ghly;fis ,aw;wp mtw;wpw;F ,irAk; mikj;jhh;fs;. me;jg; ghly;fs; vy;yh fpwp];jt FOf;fspYk; ,d!Dk; gpugykhf ,Uf;fpd!wd. me;j rNfhjhp gpd!dh; jd! nrhe;j Copaj;ij Muk;gpj;jhh;fs;.

Ntg;Nghpapy; 9> uz!lhy;]; NuhL (<.tp.Nf.rk;gj; rhiy) vDk; tpyhrj;jpy; ,U FOf;fSk; If;fpakhfj; njhOJ nfhz!ldh;. tpRthrpfSf;Fs; fUj;J NtWghL Muk;gpj;jJ. mJ xU rkhdk; ,y;yhJ Efj;jpw;Fl;gl;l ,izg;ghf ,Ue;jJ. xU ehs; gh];lh; My;tpd! ,e;j Copaj;ij jdJ fl;Lg;ghl;bw;Fs; nfhz!L tu tpUk;gp> me;j Copak; jdJ vd!Wk; vy;yhUk; jd! cj;jutpd!gb elf;fNtz!Lk; vd!Wk; $wpdhh;. rNfh. yhwp fpwp];Jtpd! cj;juTfSf;Fj;jhd! fPo;g;gbgth; vd!gjhy; cldbahf mth;fsplkpUe;J tpyfpdhh;. rNfh. yhwp> tpRthrpfs; fl;Lg;ghL ,y;yhky; Rje;jpukhf njhOJ nfhs;tjw;F> nrd!id> Ntg;Nghpapy; “A+gpyp `hy;” vd!w nghpa fl;llj;ij xOq;F nra;jhh;. mg;nghOJ vy;yh tpRthrpfSk; re;Njh\g;gl;L rNfh. yhwpaplk; jpUk;gpdh;.

Ntjj;ij Nghjpf;Fk; Copak;

jpushd [dq;fs; jhfj;Jld! gq;Nfw;w nghpa $l;lq;fspy; jw;NghJ Ntjj;jpd! Mokhd rj;jpaq;fis ntspg;gilahfNt Nghjpj;jhh;. ,J kf;fis ];jhgd mbikj;jdj;jpy; ,Ue;J ntspNaWk;gb J}z!baJ. mth;fs; Ntjj;jpd! rj;jpaq;fis mwpa mjpf Mtyhf ,Ue;jdh;. rNfh. yhwp mth;fSf;F rNfh. tpy;ypak; gpuhd!`hkpd! nra;jpfis mwpKfk; nra;jhh;. Muk;gj;jpy; rpy Copah;fs; rNfh. gpuhd!`hk; Copaj;ij njhpe;J nfhz!L gpd!dh; mtUila cgNjrq;fspd! Moj;ijf;fz!L gpd!thq;fpdh;. gh];lh; G. Re;juk;> rNfh. n`d!wp N[hrg;> rNfh. kDNty; ‡ngh;dhd!Nlh> rNfh. P. lhdpNay; Mfpa ehd!F Copah;fSk; Nrh;e;J tpLjiy J}jd!vd!w ngah; nfhz!l khjg; gj;jphpif elj;jpdh;.

mth;fs; rNfh. tpy;ypak; gpuhd!`hkpd! [Ptpa rhl;rpia 1956 Nk Kjy; 1956 etk;gh; tiu cs;s ,jo;fspy; jtwhky; ntspapl;L te;jdh;. jw;NghJ mNj Copah;fSk; mth;fSila FOf;fSk; mtUila Copak;> nra;jp> cgNjrq;fs; Mfpatw;iw Kw;wpYkhf vjph;f;fpd!wdh;. Mdhy; rNfh. yhwpNah rNfh. tpy;ypak; gpuhd!`hk; gpurq;fpj;j rj;jpaj;jpy; jplkhf epd!whh;. 1965 Nfhilapy; rNfhjud!> rNfhjhp yhwp MfpNahh; xhprh khepyj;jpy; rk;gy;G+h;> fl;lhf; Mfpa ,lq;fSf;Fr; nrd!wdh;. mg;Nghija xhprh Kjy;th; gpNud! kpj;uhtpd! kfd! fhy; Kwpe;J khTf;fl;L Nghlg;gl;bUe;jJ. n[gj;jpw;Fg; gpd!dh; mtd! Rfkhfp khTf;fl;il vLj;J tpl;ldh;. rk;gy;G+hpy; fDq;fh kfhuh[hthy; mth;fs; miog;G ngw;wpUe;jdh;. mtUf;F Ntjj;jpd! Mokhd ,ufrpaq;fis jpwe;J fhz!gpj;jdh;. cs;Sh; ghi\apy; ifg;gpujpfis mr;rpl;L mq;F tpepNahfpj;jdh;. ,e;ehl;fspy;jhd! rNfh. yhwp> mnkhpf;fhitr; Nrh;e;j ‡g;nul; L. Ng[; vd!gth; vOjpa “Njtidg; gphpag;gLj;Jk; [Ptpak;” vDk; Gj;jfj;ij ngUkstpy; mr;rpl;L cynfq;Fk; tpepNahfpj;jhh;. ,e;jg; Gj;jfkhdJ> mNefh; jq;fs; Mtpf;Fhpa [Ptpaj;jpy; NjtDila MrPh;thjq;fis czur; nra;jJ. mNefUila [Ptpak; khwp mth;fs; Njtid Kw;wpYk; rhh;e;J [Ptpf;fj; jPh;khdpj;jdh;.

1966-y; rNfh. yhwp tlf;fpy; Me;jpuhTf;Fk;> njw;fpy; NfushTf;Fk;> Nkw;fpy; ik#Uf;Fk; nry;y Ntz!bapUe;jJ. gpd!dh; kWgbAk; Me;jpuhTf;Fk; tl ,e;jpahTf;Fk; miof;fg;gl;lhh;. tl ,e;jpahtpypU;J jpUk;gpa gpd!dh;> nrd!id S.I.A.A. ikjhdq;fspYk;> gpd!dh; irjhg;Ngl;il upr;rh;l;]; G+q;fhtpYk; $l;lq;fs; ele;jd. mtw;wpy; Mapuf;fzf;fhd kf;fs; Mokhd fhhpaq;fisg; Ghpe;J nfhz!L> Njtid Nrtpf;fj; jPh;khdpj;jdh;. lhf;lh; S.C. N[f;fGk; lhf;lh; (jpUkjp) kh];fphPDk; mth;fSila FLk;gq;fSk; kw;Wk; gyUk; Njtdhy; njhlg;gl;ldh;. rpy tUlq;fSf;Fg; gpd!dh; mth;fs; jq;fs; NtiyfisAk; jq;fs; nrhj;Jf;fisAk; tpl;Ltpl;L Copaj;jpw;F te;jdh;. lhf;lh; N[f;fg;> nrd!id gy;fiyf;fof Gtpapay; gphptpy; tpQ;Qhd Muha;r;rpahsuhf ,Ue;jhh;. “VO rig fhyq;fs;”  vDk; Gj;jfj;ij jkpohf;fk; nra;a rNfh. yhwp xU mwpQiuj; Njbdhh;. ,e;jf; fhhpaj;jpw;F lhf;lh; N[f;fg;jhd! Vw;wtuhf ,Ue;J me;j Gj;jfj;jpd! jkpohf;f Ntiyia rpwg;ghf nra;jhh;.

,e;j Gj;jfk; jkpo;ehl;by; 1000 jiyth;fSf;F mjpfkhfTk; kw;Wk; tpRthrpfSf;Fk; mDg;gg;gl;lJ. trdj;jpw;nfd!W ijhpakhf epd!W ];jhgdf; fl;Lg;ghl;by; ,Ue;J ntsptu mth;fshy; Kbe;jJ. rpy Mz!LfSf;Fg; gpd! mth; rNfh. yhwpia tpl;L> fdlh ehl;bYs;s gpuhd!`hk; tpRthrpfs; %yk; gpuhd!`hk; nra;jpfs; mr;rplg;gLtjpy; nghWg;Ngw;Wf; nfhz!lhh;. me;j ehl;fspNy [_d! 1966-y; jpus; $l;lkhd kf;fs; S.I.A.A. ikjhdj;jpy; $baNghJ> ntt;NtW jug;G kf;fisAk; (mjpy; rpyh; tk;G nra;a te;jth;fs;) rkhspf;f jd!dhh;tj; njhz!lh;fSf;F fbdkhf ,Ue;jJ. XU $l;lj;jpy; tpj;jpahrkhd kNdhghtk; cs;sth;fs; ,Ug;ghh;fs;. xU ,utpy;> $l;lk; Kbe;J $l;lk; Fiwe;J nfhz!bUe;jNghJ> xU ,e;J rhJ fhtp cilapy; rpy njhz!lh;fsplk; rz!ilf;F epw;gJ Nghy; “Vd! ehd! flTisg; ghh;f;f Kbatpy;iy?” vd!W Nfl;lhh;. mth; NkypUe;J mOf;F rhf;fil ePh; nrhl;L nrhl;lhf tbe;J nfhz!bUe;jJ. Muk;gj;jpy; mth; “Mj;Jkhtpd! msT vd!d?”> “cz!ikahd flTis vdf;F fhz!gpAq;fs;?” Nghd!w Nfs;tpfisf; Nfl;L mth;fSf;F vhpr;ry; %l;bajhfj; Njhd!wpaJ. mthplkpUe;J jg;Gtjw;fhf njhz!lh; xUth; mthplk;> “S.I.A.A. ikjhdk; mUfpYs;s %h; khh;f;fl; gpd!dhy; XLfpw rhf;filapy; ($tk;) ,wq;fp fOj;jsT ePhpy; xU kzp Neuk; epd!why; ePh; xUNtis flTisf; fhzyhk;” vd!W $wpapUf;fpwhh;. ,e;j rhJ mij cz!iknad ek;gp rhf;filapy; fOj;jsT ePhpy; epd!wpUf;fpwhh;. MfNt mth; njhz!lh;fsplk; Nfhgkhfj; Njhd!wpdhh;.

rNfh. yhwp mtUf;fhf n[gpj;jNghJ> mth; nka;ahd Njtidf; fz!lhh;. xU $l;lj;jpy; rNfh. yhwp gpurq;fpf;ifapy; mtUila tyJ gf;fk; fh;j;jUila J}jd! nghpa gl;laj;NjhL ghJfhg;ghf epd!W nfhz!bUg;gijf; fz!L> “,th;jhd! (rNfh. yhwp) nka;ahfNt Njtdhy; miof;fg;gl;l kD\d!. ,tUf;Fr; nrtp nfhLq;fs;. ,tUf;Fr; nrtp nfhLq;fs;” vd!W cuj;j Fuypy; rj;jkpl;lhh;. rhJ [PtGj;jpud! xU ehs; n[gthpirapy; kf;fs; n[gpf;fg;gLtij ftdpj;Jf; nfhz!bUe;jhh;. mjpy; gpwg;gpypUe;Nj FUlhf ,Ue;j xU ngz! ,Ue;jhs;. rNfh. yhwp> mtSila fz!fisj; njhl;L n[gpj;jNghJ> mts; cldbahfg; ghh;it mile;jhs;. ,J [PtGj;jpud! rNfh. yhwpAld! neUq;fp tur;nra;J fh;j;juhfpa ,NaRit Vw;Wf;nfhs;sr; nra;jJ. kWgbAk; tlf;Fg; gFjpfspypUe;J miog;G te;jJ. rNfhjud; kw;Wk; rNfhjhp yhwp> ehALg;Ngl;il> ney;Y}h;> fhthyp> gpl;uFz!lh Mfpa ,lq;fSf;Fr; nrd!wdh;. ehALg;Ngl;ilapy;> xU gprhR gpbj;j kD\d!> Nkilf;F Neuhfg; gha;e;J nrd!whd!. mtdhy; rNfh. yhwpia neUq;f Kbahjjhy; jiuapy; ntF Ntfkhff; Fj;jpajhy; mtDila if jiuf;Fs; nrd!W tpl;lJ. mtd! gprhrpd! gpbapypUe;J tpLjiy ngw;whd!.

ney;Y}hpy; 30 ehl;fs; ele;j $l;lq;fspy;> 50>000-j;jpw;Fk; mjpfkhd kf;fs; jpdKk; gq;nfLj;jdh;. mNefh; fh;j;juhfpa ,NaR fpwp];Jit jq;fs; nrhe;j ,ul;rfuhf Vw;Wf; nfhz!ldh;. 1000 NgUf;F Nky; fhj;juhfpa ,NaR fpwp];Jtpd! ehkj;jpy; Qhd];ehdk; ngw;wdh;. mf;Nlhgh; 1966-y; rNfh. yhwpapd! %j;j kfd! Njt “Njtidg; gpupag;gLj;Jk; [Ptpak;” vDk; Gj;jfj;ij thrpj;Jf; nfhz!bUf;ifapy; Njtid Kw;wpYkhf Nrtpf;Fk;gb Njtd! mtUila ,jaj;ij mirj;jhh;. ,J> mth; jd! fy;Y}hpg; gbg;ig tpl;Ltpl;L mf;Nlhgh; 15> 1966y; KO Neu Copaj;jpw;F tUk;gb nra;jJ. 1967-y; mth;fs; ,e;j Kiw tlf;fpy; n[k;n\l;G+h; nrd!wdh;. topapy; xU murpay; Nghuhl;lj;jpy; khl;bf; nfhz!ldh;. mth;fs; gazk; nra;j ,uapy;> topapYs;s ,uapy; epiyaj;jpy; epWj;jg;gl;L fw;fs; vwpag;gl;ld. Mdhy; NjtDila gps;isfSf;F ve;j jPq;Fk; Neutpy;iy.