ngUe;jpushd kf;fs; gq;Nfw;Fk; Mj;k> rhPu Rfkspf;Fk; $l;lq;fs;

nrd;idapy; eilngw;w khngUk; $l;lk;-1961

jPg;nghwpAk; thd Ntbf;ifAk;

rNfh. yhwp jd!Dila Kjyhk; cyfg; gazj;ij Kbj;J [_iy 25> 1960-y; jpUk;gpaNghJ> kpFe;j kdr;Nrhh;Tw;wpUe;jhh;. mth; mnkhpf;fhtpypUe;J jpUk;gpajhy; mth; vq;F nrd!whYk; mth; nghpa gzj;njhiffs; Nrh;j;J tpl;lhh; vd!W kf;fs; Ngrpdhh;fs;. ,J tof;fj;jpw;F khwhdjy;y> Vndd!why; Nky; ehl;L rigfspy; NrUk; ,e;jpa gpurq;fpfs; gzk; rk;ge;jkhd Mjhak; ngw;wdh;. kf;fs; mthplk; ,y;yhj Mapuf;fzf;fhd &gha;fis fld! thq;f Kaw;rpj;jdh;. ,e;jpahtpy; te;J Nrh;e;jNghJ mthplk; 10 &gha;fs; kl;Lk; ,Ue;jd. tPL te;J kidtpiag; ghh;j;jTld!> lhf;]pf;F nfhLg;gjw;F mthplk; 10 &gha; Nfl;L thq;f Ntz!bapUe;jJ. mthplk; gzk; ,y;iy vd!W nrhd!dNghJ mtUila kidtpahy;$l Ghpe;J nfhs;s Kbatpy;iy.

mnkhpf;fhtpypUe;J Gwg;gLk;NghJ ,NaR fpwp];J mtUf;F jhprdkhfp> “cyf ty;yikahd nts;spNahLk;> nghd!NdhLk; ,e;jpahtpw;F cd!id mDg;gtpy;iy. ehNd cdf;F ty;yikahf ,Ug;Ngd!. ehd! cd! Njitfis vy;yhk; re;jpg;Ngd!. vd!Dila rj;jj;jpw;Fr; nrtp nfhLf;fpw kf;fisf; nfhz!L kl;Lk; cd!id Mjhpg;Ngd!. MfNt ahhplKk; cd!Dila Njitfisr; nrhy;yhNj” vd!W $wpdhh;. rNfh. yhwp ,e;jpah jpUk;gpaJk;> mth; ek;gpf;if itj;jpUe;j neUq;fpa ez!gh; xUth; mtiu tpl;L tpyfp mtuJ ngaiuAk; J}w;wpdhh;. jhd! mnkhpf;fhtpy; ,Ue;jNghJ thf;fspj;jgbNa Xuy; uhgh;l;]; RtpNr\f; FOtpd! ,isQh; mzpf;F ehfh;Nfhtpy; rigapy; (fd!dpahFkhp khtl;lk;) nghpa mstpy; $l;lq;fs; xOq;F nra;J nfhLj;jhh;.

fh;j;juhy; mtUila Ntiyf;F gad!gLj;jg;gLNthkh vd!W ek;gpf;if ,oe;Jjhd!> rNfh. yhwp fg;gypy; tUk; jd!DilanghUl;fis Nrfhpf;Fk;gb nrd!id nrd!whh;. nrd!idapy; jd!Dila Copaj;jpy; MrPh;tjpf;fg;gl;l xU ez!ghpd! tPl;by; jq;fpapUe;jhh;. mtUila jl;LKl;Lfs; mnkhpf;fhtpypUe;J nrd!id te;J Nru xU khjkhtJ MFk; vd!W fg;gy; ruf;F mDg;Ggth;fs; nrhd!djpdhy; mth; mq;F mNef ehl;fs; jq;f NtzbapUe;jJ. nrd!idapy; jq;fpapUe;jNghJ rNfh. yhwp xU rigapy; gpurq;fpf;Fk;gb Nfl;Lf; nfhs;sg;gl;lhh;. ,t;tpjkhf Mq;fpypf;fd! rigfis Njtd! jpwe;jhh;. mtUila Kjy; $l;lk;> nrd!id> ikyhg;G+hpy; cs;s rhe;Njhk; rigapy; ele;jJ. Njtd! mw;Gjq;fisr; nra;jhh;. kw;w rigfspYk; NgRk;gb mth; miof;fg;gl;lhh;. ve;j rigapy; NgrpdhYk; $l;lq;fs; Mapuf;fzf;fpy; ,lq;nfhs;shkw; NghFksT ngUfpd.

gpd!te;j ehl;fspy; jpwe;jntsp tpisahl;L ikjhdq;fs;jhd! rNfh. yhwpapd! $l;lq;fSf;F NghJkhd msT nghpjhf ,Ue;jd. nrd!id khefuk; mire;jJ. rpy khjq;fspy; vOg;Gjypd! Mtp fhl;Lj;jP Nghy; nrd!idnaq;Fk; gutp KO efuKk; nfhOe;J tpl;nlupe;jJ. mjpy; ele;j mw;Gjq;fs; gpuk;kpg;G+l;Ljhf ,Ue;jd. mit kpf mjpfkhf ,Ue;jjhy; nrhy;Ytjw;F Kbatpy;iy. mijtpl Kf;fpakhf yl;rf;fzf;fhd kf;fs; fh;j;juhfpa ,NaR fpwp];Jit jq;fs; [Ptpaj;jpy; Vw;Wf; nfhz!ldh;. mth;fs; NjtDf;F Kd!ghf jq;fs; cs;sq;fis ntWikahf;fpdhh;fs;. mtUila Mtp mth;fis epug;gpaJ.

kf;fspd! ftdk; Fiwe;J tplhky; njhlh;e;J ePbf;fg; ngw;w ehd!F khj khngUk; $l;lq;fisg;gw;wp ahUk; tpsf;f KbahJ. mkpQ;rpf;fiuapy; Kjy; ehs; $l;lj;jpy; (19.07.1961)> fd kioapYk;> Mapuf;fzf;fhd kf;fis jhq;fs; ,Ue;j ,lj;jpypUe;J vOk;g tplhky; jLj;j <h;g;G rf;jpjhd! vd!d vd!W kf;fs; tpae;jdh;. mkpQ;rpf;fiuapy; ele;j filrp ehs; $l;lj;jpy; (30.07.1961)> tpsf;Ffs; midj;Jk; mize;J 15 epkplq;fs; KO ,Ushf ,Ue;j NghjpYk; gy jug;igr; Nrh;e;j 40>000 kf;fs; jq;fs; rpwe;j Fzj;ij ntspg;gLj;jp> ghbf; nfhz!bUf;fr; nra;j ty;yik vd!dntd!W ahuhy; gjpy; nrhy;y KbAk;?

rNfh. yhwp vgpNuA my;yJ fpNuf;f nkhopfisf; fw;wpUf;ftpy;iy. Mdhy;> Ez!zwpT ngw;W> ,iwapay; fw;wwpe;jth;fisAk; jd!ghy; <h;f;f Kbe;jJ. %l ek;gpf;if khh;f;fq;fisAk;> tpf;fpuf MuhjidiaAk; mth; fLikahfj; jhf;fpg; NgrpaNghJk;> nghJ kf;fs; mtUila gpurq;fq;fis tpUk;gpf; Nfl;ldh;. mtUila gpurq;fq;fspd! eLNt fle;j fhyj;jpYk; epfo; fhyj;jpYk; fhj;jh; mtiu elj;jpa fhhpaq;fs; kpd!Dk; xspahf ntspg;gLk; NghJ> kf;fSila ftdk; KOikahf <h;f;fg;gl;L 20>000 fOj;Jfs; Kd!Ndhf;fp ePSk;.

mtuhy; vOr;rpA+l;lg; gl;lth;fspy; Mh;Ks;s jd!dhh;tj; njhz!lh;fs; mlq;fpa mtUila Neh;j;jpahd FOtpdUk;> mtUila cld! Copah;fSk;> kw;Wk; mJtiu nkhopngah;g;G nra;jpuhtpl;lhYk;> Ntfkhfg; gha;e;J tUk; Ngr;rhshpd! thh;j;ijfSf;F ,ul;rpg;igf; fz!lth;fSk; nfhLj;j rhl;rpfSk;>   rNfhjhp yhwpAk; %d!W gps;isfSk; ghbf;nfhz!Nl nfhLj;j  Mh;tj;ijj; J}z!ba rhl;rpAk; ,f;$l;lq;fspy; cs;sj;jpw;F ntk;ikA+l;Lk; gFjpfspy; xd!whFk;. RtpNr\j;jpd! miw$tiyAk;> fpwp];Jtpd! jhf;fj;ijAk; jpushd [dq;fSf;F (tpNr\khf fpwp];jth; my;yhjhh;f;F) ntspg;gLj;Jtjpy;jhd! rNfh. yhwp> Mh;tkhapUe;J> ,ul;rpf;fg;gl;lth;fis jd! rigapy; Nrh;j;Jf; nfhs;Sk; fphpiaia [Ptdpd! fh;j;jhplk; tpl;L tpl;lhh; (mg;Ngh];jy elgbfs; 2:47). ,e;jf; $l;lq;fspy; tpLjiy ngw;w tpahjpa];jUk;> ghuKs;sth;fSk; mtUila Rfkspf;Fk; ty;yik Fwpj;J rhl;rp gfd!wdh;. kw;wth;fs; ,J vg;gbahFk; vd rpe;jpj;Jf; nfhz!bUe;jdh;.

kf;fs; rNfh. yhwp Fwpj;J czh;r;rptrg;gl;L mtiuj; NjbdhYk; me;j RtpNr\fh;> ,NaRitj; jtpu NtW ahiuAk; Njl Ntz!lhk; vd!W vg;NghJk; typAWj;jpdhh;. $l;lq;fspd! nryT NjtDila Jiwahdjhy;> Njitfs; mw;Gjtpjkhf re;jpf;fg;gl;ld. ,e;jpahtpd! Rje;jpukhdJ ,e;jpahtpYs;s fpwp];jtj;ij capuw;wjhfr; nra;atpy;iy. Mdhy; G++h;tPf fpwp];jth;fs; gz!ila ey;y kp\dhpfs; tpl;Lg;Nghd fhzpahl;rpiag; ngUfr; nra;jdh;. ,J vt;tsT fhyk; jhf;Fg; gpbf;Fk; vd!gJjhd! kf;fs; kdjpYs;s nghpa Nfs;tpahf ,Ue;jJ. Mdhy; rNfh. yhwpf;Fk; ekf;Fk; v[khddhfpa fh;j;juhfpa ,NaR fpwp];J New;Wk;> ,d!Wk;> vd!Wk; khwhjtuhapUf;fpwhh;. ,e;j Copaj;jpy; mth; xUNghJk; iftpl;ljpy;iy.

ntspauq;fkhd Njt ty;yik

nrd!id khefuj;ij cYf;fpa nghpa vOg;Gjypdhy; yhwp FLk;gj;jhh; jq;fs; Copaq;fis nrd!idf;F khw;w Ntz!bapUe;jJ. Kjypy; Xl;Nlhpapy; xU tPl;il thliff;F vLj;jdh;. gpd!dh; #isNkl;by; NtnwhU tPl;bw;F khwpdh;. rNfh. yhwpapd! rNfhjuUk;> KO CopaUkhd rNfh. vg;rpuh[; gpul;hpf;fplk; ehfh;Nfhtpy; Copak; xg;gilf;fg;gl;lJ. 1964> khh;r; khjk;> nrd!id> Fg;gNkL vDk; gFjpapy; $l;lq;fSf;Fg; gpd! nguk;G+hpy; $l;lq;fs; ele;jd. mq;F ikjhdk; gpbf;Fkstpw;F mjpfkhf kf;fs; $bdh;. me;j tUlk; Vg;uypy; mtUf;F lhf;lh; A. kJuk; Mjutpy; jpU.N[h.lhdpay; xU fd!ntd!\d! xOq;F nra;jhh;.

me;j khjj;jpNyNa nrd!idapy;> ghp. vg;gh]; ngz!fs; cah;epiyg; gs;sp ikjhdq;fs; ,uz!L thuq;fSf;F gjpT nra;ag;gl;ld. gpd!dh; jpahfuh[h fy;Y}hp ikjhdj;jpy; xU khjk; $l;lq;fs; xOq;F nra;ag;gl;ld. ,e;j tpjkhd jpl;lq;fs;jhd! mth;fSf;F ,Ue;jd. nja;tPf Rfkspg;G mjpf ty;yik nghUe;jpajhf ,Ue;jjhy; tpahjpa];jh;fs; es;spuT Ngha; tpbaw;fhyk; 2.30 kzp tiu fhj;jpUf;f Ntz!bajpUe;jJ. MfNt jdpg;gl;l Kiwapy; jpushd [dq;fSf;F n[gpg;gjw;F $l;lj; njhlhpy; xU rhaq;fhyk; xJf;f Ntz!bajhapw;W. rhPug;gpufhukhf rNfh. yhwp gyk; nghUe;jpatuhf ,Ue;jhYk;> nja;tPf gyKk; jplkdJk; ,y;yhky; me;j mOj;jj;ij jhq;fpapUf;f KbahJ. $l;lk; rkhspf;f Kbahj msT nghpjhfp tpl;lhy; jdpj;jdpahf n[gpg;gJ $lhj fhhpak;. MfNt rNfh. yhwp> kf;fs; midtUf;Fk; Nrh;j;J xU nghJ n[gk; nra;a Ntz!bajhapw;W. tpahjpa];jUf;fhd me;j nghJ n[gj;jpy; xNu Neuj;jpy; xNu n[gj;jpy; yl;rf;fzf;fhNdhh; tpLjiyahapdh;.

NtY}h;> fhQ;rpGuk;> Nryk;; kw;Wk; jkpo; ehl;by; gy ,lq;fspy;> Nguhah; D. nry;yg;gh mth;fSila mDkjpAlDk;> MjuTlDk; khngUk; $l;lq;fs; eilngw;wd. mg;gb $l;lq;fs; eilngw;w ,lq;fspnyy;yhk;> n[gf; FOf;fs; KONeu Copah;fs; my;yJ gFjpNeu Copah;fspd! cjtpAld! Vw;gLj;jg;gl;ld. $l;lq;fSf;fhd tpsk;guq;fisf; Fwpj;Jr; nrhy;y nghpjhf xd!Wk; ,y;iy. nrhy;yhkypUg;gNj Nky;. nghJ [dq;fs; ghh;f;fj; jf;fjhf Kf;fpak; tha;e;j ,lq;fspYk; rhiyfs; re;jpf;Fk; ,lq;fspYk; rpy Rtnuhl;bfs; itf;fg;gl;ld. gj;jphpiffspy; tpsk;guk; nra;Ak; nryT mjpfnkd!gjhy; Rw;Wtl;lhuj;jpYs;s jkpo; gj;jphpiffspy; rpW tpsk;guq;fSk;> Mq;fpy ehspjopy; thptpsk;gu gFjpapy; tpsk;guKk; nra;tJz!L.

$l;lj; njhlhpy; xU KiwNah my;yJ ,U KiwfNsh ,J nra;ag;gl;lJ. etPd RtpNr\fh;fs; jq;fs; gz gyj;ij fhz!gpj;J jpdKk; ntspapLk; tpiyAah;e;j KO gf;f tpsk;guq;fSf;F ,JKw;wpYk; KuzhdJ. jdpg;gl;l tpRthrpfs; jq;fs; Rw;Wg;Gwq;fspy; ifg;gpujpfs; tpepNahfpg;gJz!L. tpsk;guq;fs; Fiwthf ,Ue;jhYk;> jpushd [dq;fs; $l;lq;fspy; gq;F ngw;wdh;. ,e;j khngWk; $l;lq;fs; mjpf kD\ Kaw;rpapdhNyh> nghpa mstpy; Maj;jk; nra;Njh my;yJ mjpf gzk; Nrfhpj;Njh elj;jg;gltpy;iy. Mdhy; ghpRj;j Mtpapd! elj;Jjypdhy; gue;J mfd!w ikjhdq;fs; Vw;ghL nra;J> njd!dq; fPw;Wfshy; Md $iu Ntag;gl;l> %q;fPyhy; Md Nkilfs; vOg;gg;gl;ld. ntspr;rj;jpw;F> Foy; tpsf;Ffs; khl;lg;gl;l kuj;jpyhd fk;gq;fs; ikjhdj;jpy; itf;fg;gl;ld. jpushd kf;fs; nra;jpfisf; Nfl;gjw;fhf gy jpirfspYk; mNef xypngUf;fpfs; itf;fg;gl;ld. 

$l;lk; elf;Fk; Ntis neUq;Fk;NghJ vy;yh jug;gpypUe;Jk; jpushd kf;fs; fly; miyfs; Nghy; cs;Ns tUth;. rhpj;jpuj;jpy; Nfl;buhj> xg;gw;w tpjj;jpy; ntF rPf;fpuk; ikjhdk; epuk;gp tpLk;. NtnwhU ,izaw;w fhhpak; vd!dntd!why; ,e;jj; jpus; $l;lj;jpy; ghJfhg;gpw;fhf fhty; Jiwapd! ve;j cjtpAk; Nfl;fg;gltpy;iy. ,e;j kf;fs; jpushdJ KOtJkhf mikjpahf ,Ue;jJ vd!Wk;> mq;F fhty; Jiwapd! ghJfhg;G ,y;yhkNyNa ve;jtpjkhd mrk;ghtpjKk; ,y;iy vd!W rhjhuz cilapy; te;jpUe;j fhtyh;fSk;> mjpfhhpfSk; rhd!wspj;jdh;. rNfh. yhwp Nkilf;F te;J mtUila nra;jpfis nfhLf;f Muk;gpf;Fk;NghJ Crp tpOe;jhYk; Nfl;ff;$ba mikjp epyTk;. rpW Foe;ijfs;$l mikjpahapUg;gh;. rNfh. yhwp nra;jp nfhLj;j NghJ NjtDila ty;yik kf;fs;kPJ ,wq;fp kf;fs; cd!dpg;ghf ftdpf;fTk;> mjw;Nfw;g gpujpgypf;fTk; nra;jJ.

ty;yikahdJ kf;fs;Nky; ,wq;Fk;NghJ mRj;j Mtpfshy; gPbf;fg;gl;l Mz!fSk; ngz!fSk; $l;lj;jpy; jq;fs; ,lq;fspypUe;J vOe;J Nkilia Nehf;fp Xb tUth;. NkilaUfpy; te;jTld;> ghpRj;j Mtpahdth;> mth;fs; $l;lj;ij njhe;juT nra;ahjgb fl;Lg;gLj;Jthh;. $l;l Kbtpy; ,e;j gprhR gpbj;j kf;fs; rNfh. yhwpapd! nghJ n[gj;jpd! %ykhfNth my;yJ jdpg;gl;l n[gj;jpdhNyh Njtdhy; tpLjiy ngWth;. gprhrpd! Mtpfs; cz!L vd!W kf;fs; ek;ghj ,e;j ehl;fspy;> me;j Mtpfshy; fl;lg;gl;bUf;Fk; kf;fisAk;> fh;j;juhfpa ,NaR fpwp];Jtpd! ehkj;jpdhYk; ty;yikapdhYk; mth;fs; fl;Lg;gl;L mth;fs; tpLtpf;fg;gLtijg; ghh;f;Fk;NghJ> mJ> Fw;wk; fhz!gth;fisAk;> re;Njfg;gLk; Njhkhf;fisAk; mtpRthrpfisAk; jpiff;fr; nra;fpwJ. ,itfisAk;> kw;Wk; mNef mw;Gj Rfkspg;GfisAk; jq;fs; nrhe;jf;fz!fshy; fhZk; NghJ mth;fs; NjtDila ty;yikapd! nray;fisAk; fz!L fpwp];Jthy; nrhy;yg;gl;lit rj;jpak; vd!W czh;fpd!wdh;.

tpLjiyahd gpd!G> ke;jputhjpfshy; jq;fs;Nky; fl;lg;gl;l jhaj;J Kjyhditfis kf;fs; vLj;J tpLfpd!wdh;. mg;gb kf;fsplk; vLf;fg;gl;l jhaj;Jfs; Ftpayhff; fplf;Fk;. gpd!dh; mit vhpf;fg;gLk;. NjtDila ty;yikahy; mNefh; njhlg;gLtij kf;fs; fhZk;NghJ> mNj fhzg;glhj ty;yik jq;fisAk; njhlKbAk; vd!W tpRthrpj;J Njtdplk; ruzilfpd!whh;fs;. mt;thWjhd! Mapuf;fzf;fhd Mz!fSk;> ngz!fSk;> thypgh;fSk; rNfh. yhwpahy; fpwp];Jtpd! ghjj;jpw;F topelj;jg;gl;ldh;.

mNefh; Rfkspf;Fk; $l;lq;fis gzk; rk;ghjpf;Fk; Kaw;rpfs; vd!W fUJfpd!wdh;. Mdhy; rNfh. yhwp xUNghJk; vthplKk; gzk; Nfl;lJ fpilahJ. $l;lq;fspYk; mth; xUNghJk; fhzpf;if Nrfhpj;jJ fpilahJ. $l;l ikjhdq;fspy; filfs; thliff;F tplg;gl;lJ ,y;iy. vtUk; vijAk; mq;F tpw;f mDkjp ,y;iy. Copaj;NjhL rk;ge;jg; gl;lth;fshy; ve;jg; gzKk; Nfl;fg;gltpy;iy. vy;yh nryTfSk; fh;j;jh; Kd!G thf;fspj;jgb mtuhy; Mr;rhpatpjkhf re;jpf;fg;gl;ld. ,e;j mirtpw;F vjpuhf epd!wth;fs;> rNfh. yhwpapd! Copak; Nky; ehl;L rigfspd! cjtpahy; my;yJ ,ufrpa epjpfshy; jhq;fg;gLfpwJ vd!w tje;jpfisg; gug;gpdhh;fs;. Mdhy; mJ Kw;wpYk; cz!ikf;Fg; Gwk;ghdJ. 

Copaj;jpd! vy;yhr; nryTfSf;Fk; Njitahd gzk; NjtdplkpUe;J vjph;ghuhj tpjq;fspy; tUfpwJ vd!W Copaj;jpy; neUq;fp ,Ug;gth;fSf;Fj; njhpAk;. fh;j;jUila Ntiyia jhq;Ftjw;F> jdp egh;fs; ghpRj;j Mtpapdhy; elj;jg;gl;L jq;fshy; ,ad!wij jd!dhh;tj;Jld! nfhLj;jhh;fs;. cjtp tUk;NghJ mJ vg;nghOJk; rhpahd Neuj;jpy; rhpahd njhifahf ,Uf;Fk;. nrd!id S.I.A.A. ikjhdj;jpy; ele;j $l;lq;fspy; yl;rf; fzf;fhNdhh; mlq;fpa khngUk; $l;lj;jpdh; jpdKk; fye;J nfhz!ldh;. fhzpf;if Nrfhpf;fg;glhjjhy;> nryTfis rkhspf;f KbahJNghy; Njhd!wpaJ. jpiug;gl jahhpg;ghsUk;> jpiug;gl ];LbNahtpd! KjyhspAkhd Gfo; ngw;w A.V. nka;ag;g nrl;bahh; vd!gth; vjph;ghuhj tpjkhf jd!dhh;tj;Jld! ikjhdk;> Nkil kw;Wk; tisTfSf;fhd nryit Vw;whh;.

rNfh. yhwp gutyhf Me;jpuhtpYk; Copak; nra;jhh;. uh[Ke;jphpapy; xU fd!ntd!\dpy; fye;J nfhz!lhh;. 1962-y; mth; jpUk;gp te;J njw;Nf kJiuapYk;> Nkw;Nf NfushtpYs;s Nfhopf;NfhL Kjypa ,lq;fSf;Fk; nrd!whh;. gpd!dh; tlf;Nf by;ypf;F mg;ghy; kPul; vDk; ,lj;jpw;Fr; nrd!whh;. Copak; Ntfkhfg; ngUfpf; nfhz!bUe;jJ.

vjph;g;Gk; NjtDila ghJfhg;Gk;

vg;gb ,Ue;jhYk; ghijahdJ rkjskhf> rpf;fy; ,y;yhkypy;iy. vq;Nf nrd!whYk; mq;F vjph;g;G ,Ue;jJ. me;je;j Ch;fspYs;s rigiar; Nrh;e;jth;fs; jq;fs; rigahhh; vOg;Gjypdhy; Ntnwq;Fk; nrd!W tpLthh;fs; vd!W vz!zp vjph;j;jhh;fs;. rpyh;> rNfh. yhwpia ,Uz!L NghdtuhfTk;  me;jp fpwp];JthfTk; rpj;jhpj;j Jz!Lg;gpujpfis mr;rbj;J nghJ kf;fsplk; tpepNahfpj;jdh;. kw;wth;fs;> rNfh. yhwp mtUila cgNjrq;fis gpurq;fpf;ff; $lhJ vd!W nrhy;yp tirghLk;> gaKWj;Jk; fbjq;fis vOjp mDg;gpdhh;fs;. fh;j;jh; mirthLk; Neuj;jpy;> NjtDila mirit vjph;f;f rhj;jhDf;Fk; gpujpepjpfs; cs;sdh;.

nrd!id khefuk;

nrd!idapy;> 1961-y; kfj;jhd vOg;Gjy; $l;lj;njhlh;fs; elf;Fk;NghJ yl;rf;fzf;fhNdhh; xt;nthU $l;lj;jpYk; fye;J nfhz!lgbahy;> rpy ,e;J gpuhkzj; jiyth;fs; NfhgKk; nghwhikAk; nfhz!lhh;fs;. mth;fs; mg;Nghija jkpo; ehl;bd! Kjyikr;rh; fhkuh[hplk; nrd!W> yhwp vd!gth; khngUk; $l;lq;fs; elj;jp> vy;yh ,e;Jf;fisAk; fpwp];jth;fshf khw;Wfpwhh; vd!W mthplk; Gfhh; nfhLj;jdh;. murhq;fk; jiyapl;L ,e;j kj khw;wj;ij jLf;f Ntz!Lk; vd!W Nfhhpdh;. ,jw;F fhkuh[h;> nghJ kf;fSf;F fpilf;fhj> mijtplg; nghpjhd muR ikjhdk; xd!iw mth;fSf;F jUtjhfTk; mjpy; me;j gpuhkzh;fs; mijtplg; nghpa $l;lk; elj;jp vy;yh fpwp];jth;fisAk; ,e;J khh;f;fj;jpw;F khw;Wk;gbAk; $wpdhh;. mjw;F mth;fs; rNfh. yhwpaplk; ,Uf;Fk; rf;jpahy; mth; kf;fisj; njhl;lhNyh my;yJ mth;fSf;fhf n[gpj;jhNyh mw;Gjq;fs; ele;jd vd!whh;fs;.

mjw;F fhkuh[h;> rNfh.yhwp ,e;jpadh my;yJ ntsp ehl;ltuh vd!W Nfl;lhh;. mjw;F rNfh. yhwp xU ,e;jpad! vd!W nrhd!dNghJ> fhkuh[h; rNfh. yhwp ,e;jpadhf ,Ug;gjhy; $l;lq;fs; elj;j mtUf;F vy;yh chpikAk; cz!L vd!Wk; mth; ,e;jpahtpy; ve;jg; gFjpapYk; gpurq;fpf;fyhk; vd!Wk; mjdhy; rNfh. yhwpf;F vjpuhf jhd! xd!Wk; nra;a KbahJ vd!Wk; $wpdhh;. Kjy;thpd! ,e;jg; gjpyhy; gpuhkzh;fs; Vkhw;wk; mile;J nrd!wdh;. mg;Nghija nrd!id NkaUk; (kh[p) fth;dhpd! kidtpAkhdjpUkjp jhuh nrhpadpd! kfspd! jpUkzj;jpw;fhf rNfh yhwp miof;fg;gl;bUe;jhh;. Kjy;th; fhkuh[Uk;$l jpUkzj;jpw;F te;jpUe;jhh;. jk;gjpah; rNfh. yhwpia fhkuh[Uf;F mwpKfg;gLj;jpaNghJ> fhkuh[Nu mthplk; Neubahf ,e;jf; fhhpaj;ijr; nrhd!dhh;.

Nryk;> jkpo; ehL

mNef ,lq;fisg;Nghy; Nryj;jpYk;$l RtpNr\j;jpw;F gykhd vjph;g;G ,Ue;jJ. 1962-y;> Nryj;jpy;> ty;yikapd! Copaj;ijf; fz!L fpwp];jth; my;yhjhh; Mapuf;fzf;fpy; fh;j;juhfpa ,NaR fpwp];Jtplk; te;jNghJ> mjw;F vjpuhf epd!wth;fs; rNfh. yhwp cldbahf Nryj;ij tpl;L ntspNawh tpl;lhy; fLk; tpisTfis re;jpf;f NehpLk; vd!W gaKWj;jpdh;. $l;lq;fSf;F tpNuhjkhf Nehl;b];fs; mr;rplg;gl;L tpepNahfpf;fg;gl;ld.

Nryj;jpy;> kpul;lNyhL ntspaplg;gl;l xU Nehl;b];:

,e;j Nehl;bir thrpj;jgpd!> rNfh. yhwp vd!w gpurq;fpahh; ,e;j ,lj;ijtpl;L ntspNawhtpl;lhy;> mth; tzq;fp gpurhuk; nra;Ak; NtjkhdJ nghJ kf;fSf;F Kd!ghf vhpf;fg;gLk;. kf;fs; jq;fs; KO xj;Jiog;Gk; mspf;FkhW ,jd!%yk; Nfl;Lf; nfhs;sg;gLfpwhh;fs;.

nray; KiwNahL te;j ,e;j kpul;lYf;Fg;gpd! E}w;Wf; fzf;fhdth;fs; $l;lk; elf;Fk; ,lj;jpw;F mUfpy; $b rNfh. yhwpiaAk; mtUila kidtpiaAk; nfhiy nra;Nthk; vd!W kpul;b> mtUila Ntjj;ij Kjypy; vLj;J> fpopj;J> vhpg;Nghk; vd!W rj;jkpl;ldh;. jpBnud!W Nkilf;F te;J Ntjj;ij vLj;j mth;fspd! jiytd!> Njt ty;yikapdhy; jhf;fg;gl;L fPNo tpOe;jhd!. gpd!dh; mtDila kf;fshy; mtd! ,Oj;Jr; nry;yg;gl;L kUj;Jtkidf;Ff; nfhz!L nry;yg;gl;lhd!. mg;NghJ ,uz!L fj;jpfis ifapy; itj;jpUe;J Kul;Lj;jdkhf fhzg;gl;l xU kD\Dk;> fj;jpNahbUe;j NtnwhU kdpjDk; Nrh;e;J rNfh. yhwp> rNfhjhp yhwp MfpNahiu xU thfdj;jpy; (Van) VWk;gb nra;J Xl;br; nrd!wdh;. “ek;ikf; nfhy;tjw;fhf vq;Nfh nfhz!L nry;fpwhh;fs;” vd!W rNfhjhp yhwp $wpdhh;. rw;W Neuk; tz!bia Xl;ba gpd!dh; nghpa kdpjh;> “rNfh. yhwp> gag;glhjpUq;fs;. ehq;fs; cq;fs; ez!gh;fs;. mth;fs; Nghl;l jpl;lq;fs; vy;yhk; vq;fSf;Fj; njhpAk;. nrd!id nry;Yk; rhiyapy; cq;fis topkwpj;J nfhy;y tpUk;gpdh;. MfNt cq;fis NtW topahfr; nrd!id nfhz!L nry;fpNwhk;” vd!whh;. MfNt Rfgj;jpukhf nrd!id te;J Nrh;e;jhh;fs;.

Nryk; $l;lq;fspy; mNef mw;Gj milahsq;fs; eil ngw;wd. gprhR gpbapypUe;J tpLjiy ngw;wth;fsplkpUe;J jhaj;Jfs; vLf;fg;gl;ld. mJ xU nghpa Ftpayhf;fg;gl;L jP itf;fg;gl;lJ. ,e;jf; $l;lq;fis xOq;F nra;j rigNahhpy; Nryj;ijr; Nrh;e;j jpU. M.G.E. G\;guh[{k; xUth;. lhf;lh; G\;guh[; [hkf;fhud! vDk; fpwp];jt rQ;rpif ntspapLfpwhh;. mth; gpugy RtpNr\ Copauhf ,Ue;J fpwp];jt rKjhaj;ij rPh;jpUj;Jk; NtiyiaAk; nra;J tUfpwhh;. Nryj;jpy; ele;j rNfh. yhwpapd! Copaj;ijg; gw;wp jd! rQ;rpifapd! Kd!dhs; ,jopy; tphpthf vOjpapUf;fpwhh;. Nryk; $l;lq;fspy; jd!dhh;tj; njhz!luhf me;ehl;fspy; gq;Nfw;wpUf;fpwhh;.

NtY}h;

Copaj;jpw;F vjph;g;G gy topfspy; ntspg;gLj;jg;gl;lJ. xt;nthU KiwapYk; NjtDila ty;yikNa n[aq;nfhz!lJ. rNfh. yhwp> NtY}hpy; fpwp];jt kUj;Jtf; fy;Y}hp M];gj;jphpapy; Ntiy nra;J nfhz!Nl gFjpNeu Copak; nra;Ak;NghJ$l NjtDila ghJfhg;ig czh;e;jpUf;fpwhh;. mjpfhiy ehd!F kzp mstpy; FLk;gk;> ez!gh;fNshL njUf;fspy; nrd!W ghLtJk;> Ntjthf;fpaq;fis rj;jkpl;L mwptpg;gJk; cz!L. ,J> fpwp];jth; my;yhjhUf;Fk;> tpNr\khf “ilfh;” vDk; mth;fSila jiytDf;Fk; vhpr;ry; cz!lhf;fpaJ. ,e;j ‘ilfh;’ NkhrkhdtDk;> NkhJtjw;F Mgj;jhd Ngh;topahfTk; ,Ue;jhd!. rNfh. yhwpia mtd! vr;rhpj;J> mjpfhiyapy; rj;jkpl;L jd!idj; njhe;juT nra;af;$lhJ vd!Wk;> ,y;iyNay; mjd! tpisit re;jpf;f Ntz!Lk; vd!Wk; nrhy;yp mDg;gpdhd!. ,k;kpul;ly; RtpNr\ Copah;fisj; jLf;ftpy;iy. mth;fs; tof;fk;Nghy; nrd!whh;fs;. ,J ‘jpU. ilfiu’ vOr;rp milar; nra;J nfhiy nra;Ak; Nehf;fj;NjhL mywpf;nfhz!L te;jhd!. mtd! jpBnud!W epd!W jpUk;gp tPl;bw;Fs; Xbdhd!. ‘ilfUf;F’ md!W igj;jpak; gpbj;jJ vd!Wk;> md!W nrd!id fPo;ghf;fk; kdey kUj;Jtkid nfhz!L nry;yg;gLthd! vd!Wk; mtDila kfd! %yk; njhpa te;jJ. me;j kfNdh> fh;j;jUf;F vjpuhf te;j jd!Dila je;ijf;F Neh;e;jijf; fz!l NghJ> fh;j;juhfpa ,NaR fpwp];Jit Vw;Wf;nfhz!L rNfh. yhwp %yk; Qhd];ehdk; ngw;whd!.

jpUney;Ntyp

ehrNuj; mUfpy; gs;spg;gj;J-vUrNyk; vd!Dk; fpuhkj;jpy; vjph;g;G Nuhkd! fj;Njhypf;fhplkpUe;J te;jJ. ,NaR fpwp];Jtpd! %yk; kl;LNk ,ul;rpg;G vd!Wk;> ,NaRtpd! jhapd! %ykhf my;y vd!W rNfh.yhwp njUtpy; gpurq;fk; nra;jNghJ fj;Njhypf;fh;fs; Nfhgkile;J> rNfh. yhwpiaAk; FOtpdiuAk; mbf;fg; Nghtjhfr; nrhy;yp mth;fis #o;e;J nfhz!ldh;. mth;fs; td!Kiwapy; <LgltpUf;Fk; jUthapy;> nghpa kiog;nghopT xd!W jpBnud!W te;J $l;lj;jpdh; rpjwpg; NghFk;gb nra;jJ. mJ xU NghJk; kio nga;ah twz!l rPNjh\;z fhykhdjhy;> me;j kio tof;fj;jpw;F khwhdJ. gpd!dh; kioahdJ fj;Njhypf;fh;fNshL thf;Fthjk; ele;j ,lj;jpy; jhd! nga;jNj xopa Ntnwq;Fk; nga;atpy;iy.

mNef ,lq;fspy; $l;lkhdJ ,uz!lhfg; gphpe;J> gTy; mg;Ngh];jydpd! Copaj;ijg;Nghy; rpyh; rNfh. yhwpf;F rhjfkhfTk; rpyh; vjpuhfTk; epw;gh;. mg;gb jpUney;Ntypapy; xU fpuhkj;jpy; rNfh. yhwp Nki[f;F Kd!ghf epd!W nra;jp nfhLf;ifapy; mtUila jiyf;F Neuhf ahNuh fy;nywpe;jhh;. me;jf;fy; mth; jiyapy; glhky; fhzg;glhj xU jilapd! Nky; gl;L gpujpgypj;J ve;j jPq;Fk; nra;ahky; Nki[apd! Nky; tpOe;jJ. rNfh. yhwpf;F vjpuhf epd!wth;fs; Mr;rhpag;gl;L ,e;j jPa nraYf;fhf tUe;jpdhh;fs;. me;j fpuhkj;jpy; kpFe;j MrPh;thjKz!lhfp mNefh; ,ul;rpf;fg;gl;ldh;.

kf;fs; ];jhgdq;fis tpl;L ntspNaWjy;

jpwe;j ntsp nghJf; $l;lq;fspy; rNfh. yhwp kde;jpUk;Gjy;> ,ul;rpg;G> nja;tPf Rfk; gw;wpa nra;jpfisf; nfhLj;jhh;. jd!Dila tPl;bYk; n[gf; FOf;fspYk; kf;fs; ghpRj;j Mtp ngWk;gb tpNr\f;$l;lq;fs; elj;jpdhh;. jhfKs;s Mj;Jkhf;fSf;F Ntj ghlq;fis elj;jpdhh;. Xa;T vLg;gjw;fhf cs;s jdp ,lq;fspy;; ele;j $l;lq;fspy;> kf;fs; nghpa mstpy; fye;J nfhz!ldh;. mq;F Ntjj;jpypUe;J Mokhd nra;jpfisf; fw;gpj;jhh;. KOf;F Qhd];ehdj;jpy; fh;j;jUf;F fPo;g;gba tpUk;gpath;fs; fh;j;juhfpa ,NaR fpwp];Jtpd! ehkj;jpy; Qhd];ehdk; ngw;wdh;. (mg;. 2:38).

Nghjfh;fs;> rig mjpfhhpfs;> %g;gh;fs;> gy;NtW rigfs; kw;Wk; FOf;fspd! Nguhah;fs; mthplk; ,ufrpakhf te;J ghpRj;j Mtpapd! mgpN\fk; ngWtjw;fhfTk; fh;j;juhfpa ,NaRtpd! ehkj;jpy; Qhd];ehdk; ngwTk; ,ufrpakhf te;jdh;. ,jpy;> ek;Kila ehl;fspd; gpugykhd nghpa RtpNr\fh;fSk; mlq;Fth;. jq;fs; rigfspy; mth;fs; ,Ue;jhYk; $l rNfh. yhwpf;F kiwKfkhd MjuT nfhLj;jdh;. ,J ,];uNtypy; NghjfdhapUe;J ,ufrpakhf ,NaRtpdplk; te;j epf;nfhNjK> mtUf;F kiwKfkhd MjuT nfhLj;jjw;F xg;ghFk; (Nahthd! 3:1-2> 7:50-53).

Mokhd rj;jpaq;fis Ghpe;J nfhz!l mNefh; ];jhgd khh;f;fq;fshy; cgNahfkpy;iy vd!W fz!L> Ntj thf;fpaq;fspd!gb Njtidg; gpd!gw;wp> njhOJ nfhs;Sk;gb jq;fs; rig ];jhgdq;fis tpl;L ntspNawpdh;. rNfh. yhwp> Njtid Kw;wpYk; rhh;e;jpUf;Fk; tpRthr [Ptpaj;ijAk;> rP\j;Jtj;ijAk; vg;nghOJk; typAWj;jp te;jhh;. rpy tpRthrpfs; Njtd! Nky; G+uz tpRthrk; itj;J> G+kpf;Fhpa jq;fs; t];Jf;fis tpl;Ltpl;L Njtidg; gpd!gw;wpdh;. mNj Neuj;jpy;> $l;lq;fSk;> khngUk; $l;lq;fSk; nts;sg; gputhfk; Nghy; njhlh;e;jd. 1963-y; J}j;JFbapy; ele;jJ tpNr\khdJ. mjpy; 1900 NgUf;F Nky; xNu ehspy; rNfh. yhwpaplk; Qhd];ehdk; ngw;wdh;. gpd!dh; ghisaq;Nfhl;ilapYk; KjY}hpYk; $l;lq;fs; ele;jd. Rtpl;rh;yhe;ijr; Nrh;e;j rNfh. Xl;Nlh gPNrAk; mtuJ kidtpAk; me;ehl;fspy; njd! ,e;jpah te;jdh;. mth;fs; rNfhjud!> rNfhjhp yhwpAld! J}j;JFbapYk; mjd! gpd!dh; fd!dpahFkhp khtl;lj;jpy; gy ,lq;fspy; rpyfhyk; Ntiy nra;jdh;.

Copaj;jpd! fdkhd RikfSk; kd mOj;jq;fSk; rNfh. yhwpapd! MNuhf;fpaj;ij ghjpj;jd. gpg;uthp 10> 1964-y; ,ja ,af;ff; NfhshW Vw;gl;lJ. es;sputpy; tpahjpahapUe;j jpUkjp my;NyYah rhKNty; vd!gtUf;fhf n[gpf;f rNfh. yhwp miof;fg;gl;lhh;. jpUk;g tUk;NghJ jd! tPl;bd! gbf;fl;by; nghpJk; fisg;Gw;W tpOe;jhh;. xU kzp Neuj;jpw;F Nky; mth; Ra epidtpd!wp ,Ue;jhh;. rNfhjud!> rNfhjhp yhwpAld! ,Ue;j lhf;lh; (nry;tp) S. Mypth; mtiu ftdpj;J rpy thuq;fs; gLf;ifapy; Kw;wpYk; Xa;ntLf;FkhW $wpdhh;. mLj;j ehs; 80 iky; njhiytpYs;s ehfh;Nfhtpypy; xU Nfk;g; $l;lk; eilngw;wJ. rNfh. yhwp ve;j kUe;ijAk; vLf;f kWj;jhh;. mLj;j ehs; ehfh;NfhtpYf;Fg; Nghf Ntz!Lnkd!W tw;GWj;jpdhh;. n[gj;jpw;Fg; gpd! rNfh. yhwp G+uz Rfkile;jhh;. ,J rNfhjhp Myptiu gpuk;kpf;fr; nra;jjhy;> NjtDila fphpiafspy; FWf;fpl khl;Nld! vd!W nghUj;jid nra;jhh;. gpd!dh; jd!Dila kUj;Jt Ntiyia tpl;Ltpl;L> Copaj;jpy; Nrh;e;J nfhz!lhh;.

$ypf;F nfhiy nra;gtdplkpUe;J jg;gpaJ

Nk 6> 1964-y; ,Ue;J %d!W thuq;fSf;F tlf;fpy; ehf;G+h;> gpyha;> Jh;f; vDk; J}u ,lq;fSf;Fr; nrd!whh;. fk;A+dp];l; epu;thff; FO ,Ue;j njhopw;rhiy efukhfpa gpyhapy; mth; elj;jpa $l;lq;fs; xd!wpy; mth; jhf;fg;gl;lhh;. ,NaRitg; gw;wpa gpurhuk; kf;fs; kPJ mth;fSf;fpUe;j gpb jsh;e;jjhy;> mijj; njhlh;e;J> mth;fs; mtiuj; jPh;j;Jf;fl;l tpUk;gpdh;. ,e;j ghtr;nraiy epiwNtw;w> rNfh. yhwpf;F Kd!gjpT nra;jpUe;j  ,uapypy; Vwp ,utpy; mtiuf; nfhiy nra;Ak;gb gzj;jpw;fhf nfhiy nra;gtd! xUtid mkh;j;jpdh;. ,uapy; ngl;bapd! NtnwhU gphptpy;> xU mnkhpf;fh;> lhf;lh; kpy;yh;> mtUila kidtp kw;Wk; mth;fSila rpwpa kfs; MfpNahh; gazk; nra;jdh;. mth;fNshL nghpa kPirAs;s uhZt Nk[h; KFe;jd! mNj gphptpy; Kd!gjpT nra;ag;gl;bUe;jhh;.

,utpy; uhZt Nk[iuf; fz!L lhf;lh; kpy;yhpd! kfs; gae;J J}q;f kWj;jhs;. uhZt Nk[h; NtW gphptpw;Fr; nry;y tpUk;gp rNfh. yhwp jdpahf J}q;fpf; nfhz!bUe;j rNfh. yhwpapd! miwf;Fs; Eioe;jhh;. me;j Ntisapy; mjw;F rpy nrf;fz!Lfs; Kd!djhf gpuNtrpj;J ePz!l fj;jpAld! epd!wpUe;j nfhiyfhuidg; ghh;j;jhh;. mtd!> rNfh. yhwpia jhf;f jahh; epiyapy; ,Ue;jhd!. mtd! jhf;Ftjw;FKd!> me;j uhZt Nk[h; mtd!Nky; gha;e;J mtid Nkw;nfhz!lhh;. kWgbAk; rNfh. yhwpapd! caph; fhg;ghw;wg;gl;lJ.

Mf];L 1964-y; jkpo;ehl;by; GJf;Nfhl;ilapy; $l;lq;fs; elj;jg;gl;ld. mr;rkak; rh;f;f]; fhl;rpfSf;fhf xU rh;f;f]; fk;ngdp $lhukbj;jpUe;jJ. rh;f;f]; ele;J nfhz!bUe;jjhy; $l;lq;fSf;F kf;fs; tukhl;lhh;fNsh  vd!W rNfh. yhwp ftiy nfhz!bUe;jhh;. mijf; Fwpj;J fh;j;jhplj;jpy; n[gpj;jhh;. jpBnud!W xU #whtsp te;J rh;f;f]; $lhuj;ij Jz!L Jz!lhf fpopj;Jg; Nghl;lJ. rh;f;f]; fhl;rpfs; epWj;jg;gl;ld. $l;lq;fspy; mNefh; fye;J nfhz!L fh;j;juhfpa ,NaR fpwp];Jit Vw;Wf; nfhz!ldh;.

mf;Nlhgh; 1964-y; F[uhj; khepyj;jpy; m`kjhghj; efhpy; elf;Fk; fd!ntd!\dpy; Ngr rNfh. yhwpf;F miog;G te;jJ. ,e;jg; gazj;jpw;F Kd! rNfhjhp yhwp 21 ehl;fs; cgthrk; ,Ue;jhh;. mth;fs; cgthrpf;Fk;NghJ> Rtpl;rh;yhe;jpypUe;J te;j kp\dhpahd rNfhjhp Nfhangy; xU fbjj;jpy; jhd! ngq;fShpy; elj;Jk; mdhij ,y;yj;ij rNfh. yhwp vLj;J elj;Jk;gb  Nfl;bUe;jhh;. rNfh. yhwp jaf;fj;Jld! mjw;F kWg;G njhptpj;J> jd!Dila Mrpukj;jpy; Mtpf;Fhpa Ntiyapy; ftdk; nrYj;jg; Nghtjhff; $wpdhh;.

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